Construction of a typical single-ended aluminium electrolytic capacitor with non-solid electrolyte. These guidelines apply for short excursion and should never be used to determine the maximum reverse voltage under which a capacitor can be used permanently. Company name or tradename " Mallory. Electrolytic capacitors use a chemical feature of some special metals, previously called "valve metals", which on contact with a particular electrolyte form a very thin insulating oxide layer on their surface by anodic oxidation which can function as a dielectric. With frequencies above the resonance the impedance increases again due to the ESL of the capacitor.
MCB of 10K units, not for the small buyer.
Solid tantalum capacitors can also withstand reverse voltages for short periods. Electrolytic capacitors are polarized components due to their asymmetrical construction and must be operated with a higher voltage ie, more positive on the anode than on the cathode at all times. It was invented by Bell Laboratories in the early s as a miniaturized, more reliable low-voltage support capacitor to complement their newly invented transistor.